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Factors affecting solubility

In this post, you will get complete information about Factors Affecting Solubility Factors affecting solubility nature of solute and solvent...

In this post, you will get complete information about Factors Affecting Solubility

Factors affecting solubility





Factors affecting solubility nature of solute and solvent


1.Nature of the Solubility

ionic compounds or polar compounds are more soluble in polar solvents like water. non-polar compounds are more soluble in non-polar solvents like benzene


2.Nature of the Solubility

the solvents which have high dielectric constants can dissolve polar and ionic compounds to a greater extent than the solvents with low dielectric constants. 

Example

NaCl is highly soluble in water.
NaCl is sparingly soluble in benzene. 

3.Temperature Affecting Solubility

for most of the substances, solubility increases with the increase in temperature. however, the solubility of some substances decreases with increase in temperature. In case of Some substances, the temperature has no or little effect on the solubility



Factors which affecting solubility definition 

  1. Pressure affect solubility if it increases, solubility increases and vice-versa.
  2. Increase in temperature increases the solubility and vice-versa.
  3. Concentration also affect solubility.
  4. Surface area affects solubility.

What is solubility 

The process of dissolving a substance in the give solvent is called dissolution. The amount of a solute dissolved in a definite quantity of a solvent depend upon the nature of the solute as will as nature of the  solvent.

The maximum amount of a particlar solute in gram which can dissolve in 100 gram of solvent at a give temperature is called solubility.



Factors affecting solubility Curves importance 


1. the solubility of a particular solute in a given solvent at a given temperature can be found out. 

2. solubilities of different solutes in a given solvent at a particular temperature can be compared. 

3. it is possible to determine the amount of solute that can be precipitated by cooling the saturated solution of that solute to a certain temperature.

4.From the solubility curves, it is possible to know the preferential precipitation of different salts during the fractional crystallization process since the solution contains more than one salt dissolved in it.


Importance of factors affecting Solubility Curve


solubility curve can be used to determine the amount of substance deposited when the solution is cooled. Solubilities of different substances at a particular temperature can be determined. The importance of solubility curve is listed below.

  1. it gives a clear idea that solubility of substance changes with the temperature.
  2. The solubility of a substance at a particular temperature can be determined.
  3. it brings the change in the solute composition substance.
  4. The solubility process of a given substance at any temperature can be determined.
  5. The solubility curve helps us to compare the solubilities of different substances at the same temperature.
  6. The solubility curve helps us to predict which substance will crystallize out first from a solution containing two or more solutes.







Factors affecting dissolution

though each solute has a certain fixed value of solubility, the rate at which  a solute dissolves in a particular solvent depends on certain factors. 


1.Size of the solute particules


the smaller the solute particles, the faster the rate of dissolution. This is because division into smaller particles increases the surface area of contact between the solute and solvent particles. Greater area of contact increases the rate of dissolution.


2.Agitation of solutions


agitation or stirring improves the contact between the solute and solvent  molecules. Consequently, the rate of dissolution increases.


3.Temperature


rate of dissolution of most of the solids increases with the increase in temperature because the solubility of the solid increases with the increase in temperature. However, in case of some solids, the rate of dissolution increases with the increase in temperature up to a certain point and decreases beyond a certain point. 


Effect of pressure

The effect of pressure on the solubility of a gas in a liquid is given by Henry's law, which states that at constant temperature, the increase in pressure on the surface the liquid increases the solubility of the gas in the liquid.


Learn more 

Physical and chemical change

Chemical reaction